流动的水没有形状,漂流的风找不到踪迹,变化的规律无处可寻,这节博客带来的是数据分析工具Pandas。

包括tushare在内的很多财经工具包,都使用pandas进行数据分析。在tushare中,获取数据的格式主要就是pandas中的DataFrame二维表格。

0 Pandas主要数据结构

Pandas有三种数据结构

  • Series:1D labeled homogeneously-typed array
  • DataFrame:General 2D labeled, size-mutable tabular structure with potentially heterogeneously-typed columns
  • Panel: General 3D labeled, also  size-mutable array

1 数据存储

CSV

写入:df.to_cvs(‘foo.csv’)

读取:df.read_csv(‘foo.csv’)

HDF5

读入:df.to_hdf(‘foo.h5′,’df’)

读取:df.read_hdf(‘foo.h5′,’df’)

Excel

读入:df.to_hdf(‘foo.xlsx’,sheet_name=’Sheet1′)

读取:df.read_hdf(‘foo.xlsx’,’Sheet1′,index_col=None, na_values=[‘NA’])

2 引入

import pandas as pd   # 数据分析,代码基于numpy
import numpy as np    # 处理数据,代码基于ndarray
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt      # 画图

matplotlib官网pandas官网 ,pandas快速入门

3 查看数据

3.1 查看头尾数据

In [14]: df.head()    //默认值5
Out[14]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232 -1.087401

In [15]: df.tail(3)     //默认值5
Out[15]:  
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232 -1.087401
2013-01-06 -0.673690  0.113648 -1.478427  0.524988

3.2 查看行键、列键、数据

In [16]: df.index
Out[16]: 
DatetimeIndex(['2013-01-01', '2013-01-02', '2013-01-03', '2013-01-04',
               '2013-01-05', '2013-01-06'],
              dtype='datetime64[ns]', freq='D')

In [17]: df.columns
Out[17]: Index([u'A', u'B', u'C', u'D'], dtype='object')

In [18]: df.values
Out[18]: 
array([[ 0.4691, -0.2829, -1.5091, -1.1356],
       [ 1.2121, -0.1732,  0.1192, -1.0442],
       [-0.8618, -2.1046, -0.4949,  1.0718],
       [ 0.7216, -0.7068, -1.0396,  0.2719],
       [-0.425 ,  0.567 ,  0.2762, -1.0874],
       [-0.6737,  0.1136, -1.4784,  0.525 ]])

3.3 查看数据整体概况,和、平均值、最大、最小值等

查看数据整体情况

In [19]: df.describe()
Out[19]: 
              A         B         C         D
count  6.000000  6.000000  6.000000  6.000000
mean   0.073711 -0.431125 -0.687758 -0.233103
std    0.843157  0.922818  0.779887  0.973118
min   -0.861849 -2.104569 -1.509059 -1.135632
25%   -0.611510 -0.600794 -1.368714 -1.076610
50%    0.022070 -0.228039 -0.767252 -0.386188
75%    0.658444  0.041933 -0.034326  0.461706
max    1.212112  0.567020  0.276232  1.071804

查看数据信息

train_df.info()
print('_'*40)
<class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'>
RangeIndex: 891 entries, 0 to 890
Data columns (total 12 columns):
PassengerId    891 non-null int64
Survived       891 non-null int64
Pclass         891 non-null int64
Name           891 non-null object
Sex            891 non-null object
Age            714 non-null float64
SibSp          891 non-null int64
Parch          891 non-null int64
Ticket         891 non-null object
Fare           891 non-null float64
Cabin          204 non-null object
Embarked       889 non-null object
dtypes: float64(2), int64(5), object(5)
memory usage: 83.6+ KB

行或列的平均值

In [61]: df.mean()
Out[61]: 
A   -0.004474
B   -0.383981
C   -0.687758
D    5.000000
F    3.000000
dtype: float64
In [62]: df.mean(1)
Out[62]: 
2013-01-01    0.872735
2013-01-02    1.431621
2013-01-03    0.707731
2013-01-04    1.395042
2013-01-05    1.883656
2013-01-06    1.592306
Freq: D, dtype: float64

转置

In [20]: df.T
Out[20]: 
   2013-01-01  2013-01-02  2013-01-03  2013-01-04  2013-01-05  2013-01-06
A    0.469112    1.212112   -0.861849    0.721555   -0.424972   -0.673690
B   -0.282863   -0.173215   -2.104569   -0.706771    0.567020    0.113648
C   -1.509059    0.119209   -0.494929   -1.039575    0.276232   -1.478427
D   -1.135632   -1.044236    1.071804    0.271860   -1.087401    0.524988

根据行、列排序

In [21]: df.sort_index(axis=1, ascending=False)    //根据轴,可以.sort_index(axis=0, by=None, ascending=True)。by参数只能对列
Out[21]: 
                   D         C         B         A
2013-01-01 -1.135632 -1.509059 -0.282863  0.469112
2013-01-02 -1.044236  0.119209 -0.173215  1.212112
2013-01-03  1.071804 -0.494929 -2.104569 -0.861849
2013-01-04  0.271860 -1.039575 -0.706771  0.721555
2013-01-05 -1.087401  0.276232  0.567020 -0.424972
2013-01-06  0.524988 -1.478427  0.113648 -0.673690
Sorting by values

In [22]: df.sort_values(by='B')       //根据值
Out[22]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-06 -0.673690  0.113648 -1.478427  0.524988
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232 -1.087401

4 选择数据

选择单列

In [23]: df['A']  //可使用df.A
Out[23]: 
2013-01-01    0.469112
2013-01-02    1.212112
2013-01-03   -0.861849
2013-01-04    0.721555
2013-01-05   -0.424972
2013-01-06   -0.673690
Freq: D, Name: A, dtype: float64

选择局部

In [24]: df[0:3]
Out[24]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804

In [25]: df['20130102':'20130104']
Out[25]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860

标签选择,通过行键、列键进行选择

In [26]: df.loc[dates[0]]        //选择一行,会降维
Out[26]: 
A    0.469112
B   -0.282863
C   -1.509059
D   -1.135632
Name: 2013-01-01 00:00:00, dtype: float64
In [27]: df.loc[:,['A','B']]  //局部选择
Out[27]: 
                   A         B
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020
2013-01-06 -0.673690  0.113648
In [28]: df.loc['20130102':'20130104',['A','B']]    //局部选择
Out[28]: 
                   A         B
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771
In [29]: df.loc['20130102',['A','B']]   //选择一行,会降维
Out[29]: 
A    1.212112
B   -0.173215
Name: 2013-01-02 00:00:00, dtype: float64
In [30]: df.loc[dates[0],'A']   //选择具体某个元素,会降维
Out[30]: 0.46911229990718628
In [31]: df.at[dates[0],'A']     //选择具体某个元素,会降维
Out[31]: 0.46911229990718628

位置选择

In [32]: df.iloc[3]
Out[32]: 
A    0.721555
B   -0.706771
C   -1.039575
D    0.271860
Name: 2013-01-04 00:00:00, dtype: float64
In [33]: df.iloc[3:5,0:2]
Out[33]: 
                   A         B
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020
In [34]: df.iloc[[1,2,4],[0,2]]
Out[34]: 
                   A         C
2013-01-02  1.212112  0.119209
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -0.494929
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.276232
In [35]: df.iloc[1:3,:]
Out[35]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804

布尔索引

In [39]: df[df.A > 0]
Out[39]: 
                   A         B         C         D
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860
In [41]: df2 = df.copy()

In [42]: df2['E'] = ['one', 'one','two','three','four','three']

In [43]: df2
Out[43]: 
                   A         B         C         D      E
2013-01-01  0.469112 -0.282863 -1.509059 -1.135632    one
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209 -1.044236    one
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804    two
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  0.271860  three
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232 -1.087401   four
2013-01-06 -0.673690  0.113648 -1.478427  0.524988  three

In [44]: df2[df2['E'].isin(['two','four'])]
Out[44]: 
                   A         B         C         D     E
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  1.071804   two
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232 -1.087401  four

5 修改数据

读取时将多列并成一排

def parse(x):
    return datetime.strptime(x, '%Y %m %d %H')
dataset = read_csv('raw.csv',  parse_dates = [['year', 'month', 'day', 'hour']], index_col=0, date_parser=parse)

Series赋值列

In [45]: s1 = pd.Series([1,2,3,4,5,6], index=pd.date_range('20130102', periods=6))

In [46]: s1
Out[46]: 
2013-01-02    1
2013-01-03    2
2013-01-04    3
2013-01-05    4
2013-01-06    5
2013-01-07    6
Freq: D, dtype: int64

In [47]: df['F'] = s1     //通过Series赋值列

赋值单个元素

df.at[dates[0],'A'] = 0
df.iat[0,1] = 0
df.loc[:,'D'] = np.array([5] * len(df))   //通过numpy赋值列
In [51]: df
Out[51]: 
                   A         B         C  D    F
2013-01-01  0.000000  0.000000 -1.509059  5  NaN
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209  5  1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  5  2.0
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  5  3.0
2013-01-05 -0.424972  0.567020  0.276232  5  4.0
2013-01-06 -0.673690  0.113648 -1.478427  5  5.0
In [52]: df2 = df.copy()

In [53]: df2[df2 > 0] = -df2    //为每个数据赋值

In [54]: df2
Out[54]: 
                   A         B         C  D    F
2013-01-01  0.000000  0.000000 -1.509059 -5  NaN
2013-01-02 -1.212112 -0.173215 -0.119209 -5 -1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929 -5 -2.0
2013-01-04 -0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575 -5 -3.0
2013-01-05 -0.424972 -0.567020 -0.276232 -5 -4.0
2013-01-06 -0.673690 -0.113648 -1.478427 -5 -5.0

修改索引

In [55]: df1 = df.reindex(index=dates[0:4], columns=list(df.columns) + ['E'])   //修改DataFrame的键

In [56]: df1.loc[dates[0]:dates[1],'E'] = 1

In [57]: df1
Out[57]: 
                   A         B         C  D    F    E
2013-01-01  0.000000  0.000000 -1.509059  5  NaN  1.0
2013-01-02  1.212112 -0.173215  0.119209  5  1.0  1.0
2013-01-03 -0.861849 -2.104569 -0.494929  5  2.0  NaN
2013-01-04  0.721555 -0.706771 -1.039575  5  3.0  NaN

后面的内容不再粘完整结果,如果需要的话参见:Pandas快速入门

6 缺省值处理

去掉缺省值

df1.dropna(how=’any’)

填充缺省值

df1.fillna(value= 5)

判断何处缺失

pd.isnull(df1)

7 操作

偏移,对齐操作

s = pd.Series([1,3,5,np.nan,6,8], index=dates).shift(2)
df.sub(s, axis='index')

对元素应用函数

df.apply(np.cumsum)    //对对象每个元素应用函数
df.apply(lambda x: x.max() - x.min())

直方图统计

In [68]: s = pd.Series(np.random.randint(0, 7, size=10))

In [69]: s
Out[69]: 
0    4
1    2
2    1
3    2
4    6
5    4
6    4
7    6
8    4
9    4
dtype: int64

In [70]: s.value_counts()   //统计值以数字格式显示直方图
Out[70]: 
4    5
6    2
2    2
1    1
dtype: int64

字符串操作

In [71]: s = pd.Series(['A', 'B', 'C', 'Aaba', 'Baca', np.nan, 'CABA', 'dog', 'cat'])

In [72]: s.str.lower()   //序列字符串转成小写字母
Out[72]: 
0       a
1       b
2       c
3    aaba
4    baca
5     NaN
6    caba
7     dog
8     cat
dtype: object

8 合并

Concat

In [73]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(10, 4))

In [74]: df
Out[74]: 
          0         1         2         3
0 -0.548702  1.467327 -1.015962 -0.483075
1  1.637550 -1.217659 -0.291519 -1.745505
2 -0.263952  0.991460 -0.919069  0.266046
3 -0.709661  1.669052  1.037882 -1.705775
4 -0.919854 -0.042379  1.247642 -0.009920
5  0.290213  0.495767  0.362949  1.548106
6 -1.131345 -0.089329  0.337863 -0.945867
7 -0.932132  1.956030  0.017587 -0.016692
8 -0.575247  0.254161 -1.143704  0.215897
9  1.193555 -0.077118 -0.408530 -0.862495

# break it into pieces
In [75]: pieces = [df[:3], df[3:7], df[7:]]

In [76]: pd.concat(pieces)
Out[76]: 
          0         1         2         3
0 -0.548702  1.467327 -1.015962 -0.483075
1  1.637550 -1.217659 -0.291519 -1.745505
2 -0.263952  0.991460 -0.919069  0.266046
3 -0.709661  1.669052  1.037882 -1.705775
4 -0.919854 -0.042379  1.247642 -0.009920
5  0.290213  0.495767  0.362949  1.548106
6 -1.131345 -0.089329  0.337863 -0.945867
7 -0.932132  1.956030  0.017587 -0.016692
8 -0.575247  0.254161 -1.143704  0.215897
9  1.193555 -0.077118 -0.408530 -0.862495

Join

In [78]: right = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'foo'], 'rval': [4, 5]})

In [79]: left
Out[79]: 
   key  lval
0  foo     1
1  foo     2

In [80]: right
Out[80]: 
   key  rval
0  foo     4
1  foo     5

In [81]: pd.merge(left, right, on='key')
Out[81]: 
   key  lval  rval
0  foo     1     4
1  foo     1     5
2  foo     2     4
3  foo     2     5
In [82]: left = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'bar'], 'lval': [1, 2]})

In [83]: right = pd.DataFrame({'key': ['foo', 'bar'], 'rval': [4, 5]})

In [84]: left
Out[84]: 
   key  lval
0  foo     1
1  bar     2

In [85]: right
Out[85]: 
   key  rval
0  foo     4
1  bar     5

In [86]: pd.merge(left, right, on='key')
Out[86]: 
   key  lval  rval
0  foo     1     4
1  bar     2     5

Append

In [87]: df = pd.DataFrame(np.random.randn(8, 4), columns=['A','B','C','D'])

In [88]: df
Out[88]: 
          A         B         C         D
0  1.346061  1.511763  1.627081 -0.990582
1 -0.441652  1.211526  0.268520  0.024580
2 -1.577585  0.396823 -0.105381 -0.532532
3  1.453749  1.208843 -0.080952 -0.264610
4 -0.727965 -0.589346  0.339969 -0.693205
5 -0.339355  0.593616  0.884345  1.591431
6  0.141809  0.220390  0.435589  0.192451
7 -0.096701  0.803351  1.715071 -0.708758

In [89]: s = df.iloc[3]

In [90]: df.append(s, ignore_index=True)
Out[90]: 
          A         B         C         D
0  1.346061  1.511763  1.627081 -0.990582
1 -0.441652  1.211526  0.268520  0.024580
2 -1.577585  0.396823 -0.105381 -0.532532
3  1.453749  1.208843 -0.080952 -0.264610
4 -0.727965 -0.589346  0.339969 -0.693205
5 -0.339355  0.593616  0.884345  1.591431
6  0.141809  0.220390  0.435589  0.192451
7 -0.096701  0.803351  1.715071 -0.708758

9 分组

对键A分组 并对每个组执行sum操作

df.groupby(‘A’).sum() 

df.groupby([‘A’ ‘B’]).sum() 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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